PCSK9 is a protein with proven deleterious effects on lipid metabolism. PCSK9 facilitates the degradation of the LDL receptors on the surface of hepatocytes. As a result, LDL concentrations in the serum increase. Statin therapy stimulates a positive feedback circle which causes PCSK9 levels to increase, attenuating statin’s efficiency. PCSK9 inhibitors have proven themselves in several clinical trials as safe drugs that cause significant improvements in lipid profiles. The purpose of this review is to fully delineate the link between PCSK9 and atherosclerosis, as well as the future of PCSK9 inhibition.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a highly prevalent disease that affects the quality of life of mainly older men. Among the complex etiology of ED, atherosclerosis is the predominant of the arteriogenic causes. It has been reported that ED and cardiovascular disease share common risk factors and common pathophysiological mechanisms (endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and low testosterone levels). Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that clinical manifestations of ED precede cardiovascular events by about three years and thus, its diagnosis offers a window for early cardiologic assessment and intervention. In patients with suspected arteriogenic ED, data ha sshown that percutaneous revascularization of penile arteries may be considered an effective treatmentstrategy in patients with macroangiopathic disease who have not responded to oral conservative therapy. All in all, a complex and yet-to-be understood interplay between ED and cardiovascular disease has been revealed in recent years.
Keywords: erectile dysfunction, penis pumps,sildenafil